Historique de Berliet

Marius Berliet est né en 1866 à Lyon, dans le quartier industrieux de la Croix-Rousse. Sa famille paternelle est originaire du Nord Dauphiné où de nombreuses générations ont travaillé comme laboureur. Son grand-père a quitté la campagne au début du XIXème siècle et a trouvé un emploi d’ouvrier-tulliste à Lyon. Son père a créé un modeste atelier de tissu pour coiffes de chapeau. Sa mère Lucie Fabre est méridionale.

Les Berliet et les Fabre appartiennent à la Petite Eglise, fraction de catholiques qui n’a pas accepté les termes du concordat de 1801. Il est l’aîné d’une fratrie de 7 enfants.

Certificat d’études en poche en 1881, à 15 ans, Marius Berliet, apprenti tisseur, rejoint ensuite l’atelier paternel. Il suit des cours du soir – mécanique et anglais – à la Société d’Enseignement Professionnel du Rhône. Il a 24 ans lorsqu’il adjoint à l’activité de son père celle de cuirs artificiels et gaufrage de tissus et invente sa machine à enrouler les rubans.

Taraudé par la mécanique, il construit son premier moteur en 1894, sa première voiture en 1895. En 1899, il achète à Lyon, 56 rue Sully, un local de 90 m2 puis loue un atelier de 450 m2 en 1900, 1 rue Paul-Michel Perret. En 1902, il acquiert les usines Audibert et Lavirotte (5000 m2), embryon de l’usine Berliet de Monplaisir.

En 1905, la vente de la licence de 3 voitures 22, 40 et 60 ch à Alco (American Locomotive Company) lui donne les moyens de prendre son essor industriel. La locomotive chasse-buffle fabriquée par l’Alco devient l’emblème de la marque Berliet. L’Ecole d’Apprentis est créée en 1912. L’exportation représente 50 % des ventes en 1912. Cette année-là, un équipage allemand sur une voiture de série Berliet gagne le rallye de Monaco. En 1913, 3 500 voitures sortent de l’usine de Monplaisir qui occupe 48 000 m2.

En 1914, il fabrique 6000 obus par jour, puis des camions (40 CBA par jour en 1916) et des chars Renault (1050 en 1918).

Usine Lyon Monplaisir

CBA Guerre 1914-18

A partir de 1916 , Marius Berliet achète 400 hectares de terrains à Vénissieux – Saint-Priest et, en deux ans, rend l’usine opérationnelle : usine intégrée de la production de l’acier à la livraison des véhicules.

Malgré son dépôt de bilan en 1921, l’entreprise, devenue Société Anonyme en 1917, se remet en selle, fait le choix du moteur diesel en 1930, lance les premières missions sahariennes (1926-1932) et oriente les activités vers la fabrication exclusive de poids lourds.

Pendant la seconde guerre mondiale, la fabrication de gazobois pour le parc de la zone sud sera possible jusqu’en fin 42 : au-delà, le gouvernement de Vichy exige la livraison de véhicules aux Allemands et oblige la firme lyonnaise à fournir une part de sa production en zone occupée. À la libération, la société Berliet est placée sous séquestre et une gestion ouvrière des usines appelée « Expérience Berliet » est mise en place.  L’entreprise est rendue à ses propriétaires en 1949, année de la mort de Marius Berliet.

Usine Vénissieux

Camion rapide Berliet

Conformément aux principes de la Petite Eglise, il désigne le chef de famille qui lui succédera : Paul, né en 1918, avant-dernier enfant. Celui-ci prend les rênes de l’entreprise à partir de 1950 avec le Président d’Automobiles Marius Berliet, Emile Parfait.

Paul Berliet

De 17 camions par jour en 1950, la production passera à plus de 120 camions par jour en 1974.

Berliet porte ses efforts à l’exportation en Europe et au développement d’une politique d’industrialisation dans les pays en voie de développement pour les propres besoins de ces pays à partir de 1958. Parmi les opérations les plus importantes :

  • création de Berliet-Algérie en 1957 et inauguration de la première ligne d’assemblage en 1958,
  • création de Berliet Maroc en 1958,
  • transfert de technologie en Chine portant sur la fabrication de 4 types de véhicules lourds en 1965,
  • contrat produits en mains d’une usine d’autobus à Cuba en 1969,
  • contrat d’industrialisation d’une gamme de 7 véhicules et construction du complexe industriel produits en mains en Algérie en 1970 (sur 300 ha avec 10 000 personnes),
  • contrat d’industrialisation de l’autobus PR 100 en Pologne et construction de l’usine de 25 unités par jour en 1972, s’accompagnent d’une politique très large de formation.

Sonacome Rouiba 1974

Parallèlement, est menée à bien, une politique de décentralisation régionale avec la création de plusieurs usines dans un rayon de 60 kilomètres autour de Lyon :

  • à Bourg-en-Bresse (01) : montage en 1964,
  • à Saint-Priest (69) et Andrézieux-Bouthéon (42) respectivement pont-essieux et boîtes de vitesses en 1970,
  • à Chambéry (73) : matériel incendie et à l’Arbresle (69) : petite mécanique en 1971,
  • d’autre part, une politique de rationalisation des méthodes et des moyens dans l’ensemble des fonctions de l’entreprise.

Deux décisions stratégiques ont marqué les années 1960 : la création du Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches en 1962, instrument de la maîtrise du produit, l’accord capitalistique avec le Groupe Michelin en 1967 aboutit au transfert de la fabrication des camions Citroën chez Automobiles M. Berliet.

En 1975, Automobiles M. Berliet compte alors un effectif de 24 000 personnes. L’Etat décide du rattachement de Berliet à la Régie Renault. En 1978, Berliet devient Renault V.I. après absorption de Saviem. En 1980 disparaissent les marques Berliet et Saviem au profit de la marque Renault.

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